10-2017, tome 114, 2, 2017, p. 295-314 - Anthony Sécher et Solène Caux - Technologie lithique et circulation des matières premières au Magdalénien moyen ancien. L'exemple de Moulin-Neuf (Saint-Quentin-de-Baron, Gironde)

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10-2017, tome 114, 2, 2017, p. 295-314 - Anthony Sécher et Solène Caux - Technologie lithique et circulation des matières premières au Magdalénien moyen ancien. L'exemple de Moulin-Neuf (Saint-Quentin-de-Baron, Gironde)

Moulin-Neuf (Saint-Quentin-de-Baron, Gironde) est un site du Magdalénien moyen ancien daté entre 18700 et 17800 cal. BP. Découvert en 1939, le site s'organise comme la succession latérale de deux abris et d'un gisement en pied de falaise. L'intérieur de l'abri 1, le plus vaste, a d'abord été en partie fouillé par R. Cousté puis par H. Péquart dans les années 1940. Entre 1976 et 1980, M. Lenoir entrepris d'en fouiller la terrasse qui a notamment livré un riche ensemble archéologique (industries lithique et osseuse, faune, matières colorantes, art mobilier) attribué alors au Magdalénien moyen. Moulin-Neuf se situe à l'interface géographique et chronologique des « faciès » à navettes, à pointes de Lussac-Angles et à lamelles scalènes. Pourtant, il n'a livré aucun de ces marqueurs classiques.

Nous nous proposons de croiser les approches pétro-archéologiques et technoéconomiques pour déterminer le mode d'exploitation de chaque ressource afin de mieux cerner les occupations de Moulin-Neuf et de les replacer dans l'espace géoculturel du Magdalénien moyen ancien.

Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence à Moulin-Neuf une grande diversité dans le spectre de matières premières exploitées. Au-delà d'un approvisionnement avec la zone périgourdine, le réseau de circulation des matières premières s'élargit nettement vers la Chalosse et le Sud du Bassin parisien. Les blocs de silex du Bergeracois, « grain de mil » et de Chalosse ont fait l'objet d'une exploitation sur place. Cette arrivée de blocs fut complétée par l???apport de supports lamino-lamellaires et d'outils provenant des formations du Turonien inférieur du Berry, du Grand-Pressigny et du Turonien d'Écoyeux. La zone de diffusion des silex du Turonien inférieur du Berry se trouve alors élargie au Nord du Bassin aquitain. Ces résultats inédits ne montrent pas de frontières territoriales nettes entre Poitou et Pyrénées mais plutôt des des réseaux complexes de circulation des matières premières lithiques, tout en conférant à Moulin-Neuf la place de carrefour géographique majeur de ces réseaux. Le partage d'un « litho-espace » similaire entre les différents faciès du Magdalénien moyen ancien relance la question de la pertinence de l'utilisation de ces faciès.

 

Mots-clés : Magdalénien moyen ancien, archéostratigraphie, technologie lithique, pétro-archéologie, économie des matières premières, silex de Chalosse, Paléolithique supérieur, Aquitaine, Sud-Ouest de la France.

 

Moulin-Neuf (Saint-Quentin-de-Baron, Gironde) was discovered in 1939. The site consists of a succession of two rockshelters and a site at the foot of a cliff. Our study concerns the largest shelter (Abri 1) which was excavated by R. Cousté and then by H. Péquart in the 1940s. Between 1976 and 1980, M. Lenoir excavated its terrace which delivered substantial archaeological vestiges (lithic and osseous industries, fauna, colouring substances, portable art) attributed at the time to the Middle Magdalenian. New radiocarbon dates, obtained by the MAGDATIS project, place the site between 18670 and 17815 cal. BP, during the Early Middle Magdalenian (EMM). The EMM reflects a veritable geocultural mosaic structured by three facies based on osseous and lithic industries: the 'Lussac-Angles facies', the 'shuttle facies' and the 'scalene bladelets facies'. These facies overlap chronologically and geographically, thus leading to the questioning of the validity of exclusive cultures defined from such facies. Moreover, what is the place of EMM sites that have not delivered any of the classic markers? This is the case of Moulin-Neuf (Abri 1, Lenoir excavations) which is located at the geographical and chronological interface of the different facies. Furthermore, none of the classic markers have been identified on the site.

We suggest crossing petro-archaeological and techno-economical approaches. The objective is not only to complete our vision of a typological territory but also to provide a dynamic vision of the management of supply areas for lithic raw materials. We therefore propose to determine the origin of the flints and identify the methods of exploitation (inside or outside the site) in order to better understand the occupations of Moulin-Neuf and replace them within the EMM geocultural territory. The corpus takes into account all tools, microliths, cores, lamino-lamellar blanks and knapping waste (> 2 cm) from layers 2, 2st, 2a, 2b and 2c (4,282 artefacts). The taphonomic and archaeostratigraphic review of the deposit led us to consider all the EMM layers as a palimpsest of several occupations.

The lithic technical system revolves around the laminar/lamellar dichotomy. On the one hand the production of blades and bladelets takes place according to two different 'chaînes opératoires'; they are never intercalated. On the other hand, the economic vocation of the supports is different. The polyfunctional blades were selected to be turned into tools (mainly burins and retouched blades). Bladelets were produced in a variety of ways (prismatic or pyramidal cores, flakes knapped on the edge). The dimensions of the microliths are relatively standardized and, typologically, they are represented by several morphotypes (simple backed bladelets, retouched or truncated backed bladelets).

This study highlights the wide range of raw materials found at Moulin-Neuf. We identified ten different flint types: Senonian flints (n = 1,326), Maastrichtian from the Bergerac region (n = 757), Upper Maastrichtian from the Chalosse (n = 528), grain de mil- flint (N=280), Lower Turonian from the Berry region (n = 156), Tertiary from North Aquitaine (n = 55), Upper Turonian from Grand-Pressigny (n = 13), Tertiary from the Aurillac Basin (n = 12), jasperoid Infralias (n = 7) and, finally, Écoyeux Turonian (n = 4). The proportion of indeterminate artefacts is 26.6% (n = 1,144). Beyond a supply from local alluvia and the Périgord area, the circulation networks widen clearly towards the Chalosse region and the south of the Paris Basin. The blocks of Bergerac flints, Chalosse flints and « grain de mil » were knapped on the site. The arrival of these blocks was completed by the importing of lamino-lamellar blanks and tools of Lower and Upper Turonian flint, respectively from the Berry region and Le Grand Pressigny, and also of Écoyeux Turonian flint. Blades made of good-quality materials were more frequently selected for the manufacturing of tools. These were either produced locally or brought to the site (in the form of blanks or tools). For lamellar production and the manufacture of microliths, there is greater adaptability to the local material of variable quality and a smaller selection of materials from elsewhere.

The "litho-espace" (sensu Delvigne, 2016) of Moulin-Neuf is the same as that of Roc-de-Marcamps 2 (with scalene bladelets) and is similar to that of Combe-Cullier (also with scalene bladelets). The origins of the materials are much more diversified than for the nearby sites of Roc-de-Marcamps 1 and Saint-Germain-la-Rivière. From a "litho-espace" point of view, Moulin-Neuf seems to fit well into the EMM with scalene bladelets and presents obvious relations with the south of the Paris Basin and probably the sites belonging to the Lussac-Angles facies (La Marche, Roc-aux-Sorciers, Taillis des Coteaux) and the shuttle facies (La Garenne). These unpublished results do not show a clear territorial border between Poitou and the Pyrenees but rather complex networks for the circulation of lithic raw materials. Moulin-Neuf seems to be located at a major crossroads in these networks. The distribution of a similar "litho-espace" between the various entities of the Early Middle Magdalenian leads us to question the partitioning of the EMM groups into exclusive 'facies'.

 

Keywords: Early Middle Magdalenian, archaeostratigraphy, lithic technology, petro-archaeology, raw material economy, Chalosse flint, Upper Paleolithic, Aquitaine, South-Western France.