20-2019, tome 116, 4, p.725-742 - Audrey  Blanchard, Annabelle Dufournet, Geoffrey  Leblé, avec la collaboration de Mohamed Sassi et Alexandre Polinski — Un ensemble funéraire du Campaniforme / Bronze ancien : le site des « Touches » à Plénée-Jugon (Côtes

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20-2019, tome 116, 4, p.725-742 - Audrey  Blanchard, Annabelle Dufournet, Geoffrey  Leblé, avec la collaboration de Mohamed Sassi et Alexandre Polinski — Un ensemble funéraire du Campaniforme / Bronze ancien : le site des « Touches » à Plénée-Jugon (Côtes

Un ensemble funéraire du Campaniforme / Bronze ancien

Le site des « Touches » à Plénée-Jugon (Côtes-d'Armor)


Audrey Blanchard, Annabelle Dufournet, Geoffrey Leblé,

avec la collaboration de Mohamed Sassi et Alexandre Polinski


Résumé : La fouille menée sur le site des « Touches » à Plénée-Jugon (Côtes-d'Armor) au printemps 2015 a permis de mettre au jour un ensemble funéraire composé de 13 sépultures. Situé sur un replat en milieu de pente, il se développe sur 170 m² en limite orientale de l'emprise. Les structures funéraires sont des fosses de formes quadrangulaires aux angles arrondis, orientées nord-ouest/sud-est ou ouest-sud-ouest/est-nord-est. Si aucun reste osseux n'est conservé sur ce terrain peu propice, les nombreuses pierres découvertes dans les comblements permettent de proposer l'existence de plusieurs dispositifs : coffre de bois mobile, planches, coffrage, système de marquage au sol. Le mobilier est rare et majoritairement en position secondaire. Un récipient céramique atteste d'au moins un geste intentionnel de dépôt associé à une sépulture. Les datations par le radiocarbone (oscillant de 2600 à 1600 cal BC) tout comme les caractéristiques typo technologique du mobilier ne permettent qu'une large attribution de cet ensemble au Campaniforme et/ou à l'âge du Bronze ancien.


Mots-clés : Campaniforme, âge du Bronze ancien, ensemble funéraire, Bretagne, architectures funéraires.


Abstract: The site of « Les Touches » is located to the north-west of Plénée-Jugon (Côtes-d'Armor), about 30 km south-east of Saint-Brieuc. The archaeological excavation was carried out in spring 2015 before the realignment of the RD59 by the Conseil Général des Côtes-d'Armor. The excavation, which covered an area of 9 000 m², was centered on the late prehistoric features that were discovered south of the road project during trial trenches carried out by A.-L. Hamon in 2013. The site dates to the second half of the Late Iron Age and to Early Antiquity. It also includes a small funerary group dating to the beginning of the Metal Ages.

The funerary group is located on the eastern edge of the excavation in a small flat area in the middle of a slope, approximately 300 m to the northeast of an Early Bronze Age settlement identified during a previous operation. At an altitude of 77 m NGF, it overlooks the Quiloury Valley. It consists of 13 funerary features in an area of approximately 170 m². As it stands, the extent of this group remains unknown; it is possible that it continues beyond the boundaries of the excavation. A pit (FS) and several post holes (PO) were found in the vicinity of the burials (SP). The pit FS1639, containing an arciform cord urn from the Early Bronze Age 2, could be linked to the small funerary complex as it cuts the tomb SP1124 . The post holes did not provide any datable material or elements linking them to the burials. Similarly, no ditches or mounds were identified. More broadly, no other Early Bronze Age feature was found on the excavation.

The burials are housed in quadrangular pits with rounded corners. Their orientations vary from north-west/south-east to west-south-west/east-north-east. Their dimensions vary from 1.36 m x 0.76 m for the smallest (SP1120) to 3.64 m x 1.90 m for the largest (SP1121). The cuts have a rounded profile with a flat bottom that is more or less even and vertical or subvertical sides. The burials are 0.17 m (SP1128) to 0.62 m deep (SP1121). However, none of the skeletal material is preserved, which is typical for this northern part of Brittany with its acidic soils. The funerary architectures that include stone and wood are diverse. Micromorphological analyses also suggest the use of earth. There are several types of burial: mobile perishable material containers set by stones in SP1119 and SP1120, mobile perishable material containers made of wood lined with clay and set by stones for SP1122 and SP1126, wooden or stone frame for SP1115 and SP1139 or a funerary chamber for SP1121. Other constructions, notably in stone, mark the burials (piling of blocks on the surface, possible small cairns, etc.).

Funerary goods are rare. A quadrangular container found in SP1139 is the only evidence of an intentional deposit. The artefacts consist of small pottery and lithic fragments found in secondary deposition contexts. The finds date to the Bell Beaker period and/or the Early Bronze Age. Thirteen radiocarbon dates from eleven features range from 2600 to 1600 cal BC. However, these dates can be brought into question as the charcoal samples come from secondary deposition contexts. It seems that the earliest burials date to the end of the Bell Beaker period and the group developed during the Early Bronze Age.

Small funerary groups dating to the Early Bronze Age such as 'Les Touches' are rare in Brittany and the Armorican Massif. This area is better known for its tumuli, built using earth and stone that cover one or several burials. They are sometimes organized into funerary groups directly linked to a family farm or a village. It is therefore tempting to link the site of 'Les Touches' with the settlement discovered at the Gouviard quarry located 300 m to the southeast. The dates obtained on the latter, from 2290-2051 cal BC, are comparable to those proposed for the funerary complex.

Such burial groups are not, however, unprecedented for the Bell Beaker period/Early Bronze Age, as similar sites have been documented in eastern and southern France. 'Les Touches' contributes to a better perception of the funerary practices of the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Armorican Massif.


Keywords: Bell-Beaker, Bronze Age, grave, funeral complex, Bretagne, funerary architecture.